Marguerite Donnadieu, known as Marguerite Duras (French: [maʁ.ɡə.ʁit dy.ʁas]; 4 April 1914 – 3 March 1996), was a French novelist, playwright, screenwriter, essayist, and experimental filmmaker. Her 1959 film Hiroshima mon amour earned her a nomination for Best Original Screenplay at the Academy Awards.
Duras was born Marguerite Donnadieu on April 4, 1914 in Gia-Dinh (a former name for Saigon), Cochinchina, French Indochina (now Vietnam); she was the only daughter of two teachers who responded to a campaign by the French government encouraging French people to settle in the colony.
Duras's father fell ill soon after their arrival and returned to France, where he died. After his death, her mother remained in Indochina with her three children. The family lived in relative poverty after her mother made a bad investment in an isolated property and area of rice farmland in Cambodia. The difficult life that the family experienced during this period was highly influential on Duras's later work. An affair between the teenaged Duras and Huynh Thuy Le, the son of a rich Sa Dec merchant, was to be treated several times (described in quite contrasting ways) in her subsequent memoirs and fiction. She also reported being beaten by her mother during this period.
At 17, Duras went to France, her parents' native country, where she began studying for a degree in mathematics. She soon abandoned this to concentrate on political science, then law. After completing her studies, through 1941, she worked for the French government in the Ministry of the Colonies; in the 1930s she also changed her name to Marguerite Duras during this period. She married in 1939 to the writer Robert Antelme.
During World War II, from 1942 to 1944, Duras worked for the Vichy government in an office that allocated paper quotas to publishers (in the process operating a de facto book-censorship system), but she was also a member of the French Resistance as a part of a small group that also included François Mitterrand, who later became President of France and remained a lifelong friend of Duras. During the war, Antelme was deported to Buchenwald in 1944 for his involvement in the Resistance, and barely survived the experience (weighing on his release, according to Duras, just 38 kg). She nursed him back to health, but they divorced once he recovered his health.
In the 1940s, Duras became an active member of the PCF (the French Communist Party).
In 1943, for her first published novel Les Impudents, she decided to use as pen name the surname of Duras, a village in the Lot-et-Garonnedépartement, where her father's house was located.
Duras was the author of many novels, plays, films, interviews, essays, and works of short fiction, including her best-selling, highly fictionalized autobiographical work L'Amant (1984), translated into English as The Lover, which describes her youthful affair with a Chinese man. It won the Goncourt prize in 1984. The story of her adolescence also appears in three other books: The Sea Wall, Eden Cinema and The North China Lover. A film version of The Lover, produced by Claude Berri and directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud, was released to great success in 1992. Duras's novel The Sea Wall was first adapted into the 1958 film This Angry Age by René Clément, and again in 2008 by Cambodian director Rithy Panh as The Sea Wall.
Other major works include Moderato Cantabile (1958), which was the basis of the 1960 film Seven Days... Seven Nights; Le Ravissement de Lol V. Stein (1964); and her play India Song, which Duras herself later directed as a film in 1975. She was also the screenwriter of the 1959 French film Hiroshima mon amour, which was directed by Alain Resnais. Duras's early novels were fairly conventional in form, and were criticized for their "romanticism" by fellow writer Raymond Queneau; however, with Moderato Cantabile, she became more experimental, paring down her texts to give ever-increasing importance to what was not said. She was associated with the nouveau roman French literary movement, although she did not belong definitively to any one group. She was noted for her command of dialogue.
Many of her works, such as Le Ravissement de Lol V. Stein and L'Homme assis dans le couloir (1980), deal with human sexuality. Her films are also experimental in form; most eschew synchronized sound, using voice over to allude to, rather than tell, a story; spoken text is juxtaposed with images whose relation to what is said may be more-or-less indirect. Despite her success as a writer, Duras's adult life was also marked by personal challenges, including a recurring struggle with alcoholism. In 1983 she was awarded the Grand Prix du Théâtre de l’Académie française.
Duras died of throat cancer in Paris in 1996, aged 81. Her funeral, held in the packed church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, was highlighted with several musical recordings, including a piano version of "India Song". She is buried in Montparnasse Cemetery.
- Les Impudents, Plon, 1943
- La Vie tranquille, Gallimard, 1944.
- Un barrage contre le Pacifique, Gallimard, 1950
- translated by Herma Briffault as The Sea Wall, 1952
- Le Marin de Gibraltar, Gallimard, 1952
- Les petits chevaux de Tarquinia, Gallimard, 1953
- translated by Peter DuBerg as The Little Horses of Tarquinia, 1960
- Des journées entières dans les arbres, "Le Boa", "Madame Dodin", "Les Chantiers", Gallimard, 1954
- translated by Anita Barrows as Whole Days in the Trees, 1984
- Le Square, Gallimard, 1955 (tr. The Square, 1959)
- Moderato Cantabile, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1958
- Les Viaducs de la Seine et Oise, Gallimard, 1959.
- Dix heures et demie du soir en été, Paris, 1960
- translated by Anne Borchardt as Ten-Thirty on a Summer Night, London, 1961
- Hiroshima mon amour, Gallimard, 1960
- translated by Barbara Wright & Richard Seaver as Hiroshima mon amour, 1961
- "Les deux ghettos," in: France-Observateur, 9 November 1961, p. 8–10
- L'après-midi de M. Andesmas, Gallimard, 1960
- translated by Anne Borchardt and Barbara Bray as The Afternoon of Mr. Andesmas, 1964
- Le Ravissement de Lol V. Stein, Gallimard, 1964
- translated by Richard Seaver as The Ravishing of Lol Stein, 1964
- Théâtre I: les Eaux et Forêts-le Square-La Musica, Gallimard, 1965 (tr. The Rivers and the Forests, 1964; The Square; La Musica, 1965)
- Le Vice-Consul, Gallimard, 1965
- translated by Eileen Ellenborgener as The Vice-Consul, 1968
- L'Amante Anglaise (fr), Gallimard, 1967
- translated by Barbara Bray as L'Amante Anglaise, 1968
- Théâtre II: Suzanna Andler-Des journées entières dans les arbres-Yes, peut-être-Le Shaga-Un homme est venu me voir, Gallimard, 1968.
- Détruire, dit-elle, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1969
- translated by Barbara Bray as Destroy, She Said
- Abahn Sabana David, Gallimard, 1970.
- L'Amour, Gallimard, 1971
- translated by Kazim Ali and Libby Murphy as L'Amour
- Ah! Ernesto, Hatlin Quist, 1971.
- India Song, Gallimard, 1973
- translated by Barbara Bray as India Song, 1976
- Nathalie Granger, suivi de "La Femme du Gange", Gallimard, 1973.
- Le Camion, suivi de "Entretien avec Michelle Porte", Les Éditions de Minuit, 1977.
- L'Eden Cinéma, Mercure de France, 1977
- translated by Barbara Bray as Eden Cinema, 1992
- Le Navire Night, suivi de Cesarée, les Mains négatives, Aurélia Steiner, Mercure de France, 1979.
- translated by Susan Dwyer as The Ship "Night"
- Vera Baxter ou les Plages de l'Atlantique, Albatros, 1980.
- L'Homme assis dans le couloir, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1980
- translated by Barbara Bray as The Man Sitting in the Corridor, 1991
- L'Été 80, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1980.
- Les Yeux verts, Cahiers du cinéma, n.312–313, June 1980 and a new edition, 1987
- translated by Carol Barko as Green Eyes, 1990
- Agatha, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1981 (tr. Agatha)
- Outside, Albin Michel, 1981
- L'Homme atlantique, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1982
- translated by Alberto Manguel as The Atlantic Man, 1993
- Savannah Bay, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1982, 2ème edition augmentée, 1983 (tr. Savannah Bay, 1992)
- La Maladie de la mort, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1982
- translated by Barbara Bray as The Malady of Death, 1986
- Théâtre III: -La Bête dans la jungle, d'après H. James, adaptation de J. Lord et M. Duras, -Les Papiers d'Aspern, d'après H. James, adaptation de M. Duras et R. Antelme, -La Danse de mort, d'après A. Strindberg, adaptation de M. Duras, Gallimard, 1984.
- L'Amant, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1984. Awarded the 1984 Prix Goncourt
- translated by Barbara Bray as The Lover
- La Douleur, POL, 1985
- translated by Barbara Bray as The War
- La Musica deuxième, Gallimard, 1985.
- Les Yeux bleus Cheveux noirs, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1986
- translated by Barbara Bray as Blue Eyes, Black Hair, 1987
- La Pute de la côte normande, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1986.
- translated by Alberto Manguel as The Slut of the Normandy Coast, 1993
- La Vie matérielle, POL, 1987
- translated by Barbara Bray as Practicalities, 1990
- Emily L., Les Éditions de Minuit, 1987
- translated by Barbara Bray as Emily L.
- La Pluie d'été, POL, 1990
- translated by Barbara Bray as Summer Rain
- L'Amant de la Chine du Nord, Gallimard, 1991
- translated by Leigh Hafrey as The North China Lover, 1992
- Yann Andréa Steiner, Gallimard, 1992
- translated by Barbara Bray as Yann Andrea Steiner, 1993
- Agatha, Savannah Bay, The Post-Apollo Press, 1992 (tr. Howard Limoli)
- Écrire, Gallimard, 1993
- translated by Mark Polizzotti as Writing, 2011
- C'est tout, POL, 1995
- translated by Richard Howard as No More, 2000
Filmography as director
- Crowley, Martin (2000). Duras, Writing, and the Ethical. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198160135. ISBN 9780198160137.
- Adler, Laure. (1998), Marguerite Duras: A Life, Trans. Anne-Marie Glasheen, Orion Books; London.
- Glassman, Deborah N. (1991). Marguerite Duras: Fascinating Vision and Narrative Cure. Rutherford London: Fairleigh Dickinson University PressAssociated University Presses. ISBN 0838633374. ISBN 9780838633373,
- Harvey, Robert; Alazet, Bernard; Volat, Hélène (2009). Les Écrits de Marguerite Duras. Bibliographie des oeuvres et de la critique, 1940–2006. Paris: IMEC. p. 530.
- Hill, Leslie (10 July 1993). Marguerite Duras: Apocalyptic Desires. London, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415050480. ISBN 978-0415050487.
- Schuster, Marilyn R. (1993). Marguerite Duras Revisited. New York: Twayne. ISBN 0805782982. ISBN 9780805782981.
- Vircondelet, Alain (1994). Duras: A Biography. Normal, Illinois: Dalkey Archive Press. ISBN 1564780651. ISBN 9781564780652.
- ^ abcdefgRiding, Alan. "Marguerite Duras, 81, Author Who Explored Love and Sex". New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- ^"Marguerite Duras". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- ^Alex Hughes, "Erotic Writing" in Hughes and Keith Reader, Encyclopedia of contemporary French culture, (pp. 187–88). London, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0415131863
"L'Amant" redirects here. For the film, see The Lover (film).
The Lover (French: L'Amant) is an autobiographical novel by Marguerite Duras, published in 1984 by Les Éditions de Minuit. It has been translated to 43 languages and was awarded the 1984 Prix Goncourt. It was adapted to film in 1992 as The Lover.
Set against the backdrop of FrenchcolonialVietnam, The Lover reveals the intimacies and intricacies of a clandestine romance between a pubescent girl from a financially strapped French family and an older, wealthy Chinese man.
In 1929, a 15-year-old nameless girl is traveling by ferry across the Mekong Delta, returning from a holiday at her family home in the town of Sa Đéc, to her boarding school in Saigon. She attracts the attention of a 27-year-old son of a Chinese business magnate, a young man of wealth and heir to a fortune. He strikes up a conversation with the girl; she accepts a ride back to town in his chauffeured limousine.
Compelled by the circumstances of her upbringing, this girl, the daughter of a bankrupt, manic depressive widow, is newly awakened to the impending and all-too-real task of making her way alone in the world. Thus, she becomes his lover, until he bows to the disapproval of his father and breaks off the affair.
For her lover, there is no question of the depth and sincerity of his love, but it isn't until much later that the girl acknowledges to herself her true feelings.
There are two published versions of The Lover: one written in the form of an autobiography, without any superimposed temporal structures, as the young girl narrates in first-person; the other, called The North China Lover and released in conjunction with the film version of the work, is in film script form, in the third person, with written dialogue and without internal monologue. This second version also contains more humor than the original.
Barbara Bray's English translation won the Scott Moncrieff Prize and PEN/Book-of-the-Month Club Translation Prize in 1986.
Duras published The Lover when she was 70, fifty-five years after she met Léo, the Chinese man of her story (she never revealed his surname). She wrote about her experience in three works: The Sea Wall, The Lover, and The North China Lover. The novel was endlessly rewritten as she grew older. In an interview later in her life, Duras stated that her new book, The North China Lover, "Is more true than 'The Lover'". In the first of her wartime notebooks, she does not retell that portion of her life in great detail but she does provide some information about her relationship with Léo that creates a rather different picture from that presented in the novel (or the film).
A few isolated quotes help establish some differences between the fiction and the reality. “I only slept with him once and that was after two years of pleading.” … "How did I manage to overcome the kind of physical loathing I felt for Léo?” … “It was on that evening that Leo kissed me on the mouth [for the first time]. I felt a cool and moist contact with my lips. The revulsion I felt truly cannot be described. … I did calm down, however, and slid over to the end of the seat as far from Léo as possible. And there I spat into my handkerchief. I kept spitting. … Truly I felt a kind of aftermath of rape. … Ugliness had entered my mouth, I had communed with horror. I was violated to my very soul.”